You’ve probably heard the advice the Police offer to households to reduce the risk of burglary. Make sure and Doors are closed and locked, use good quality strong locks on doors and windows, use a Security Alarm preferably with different zones, don’t leave tools lying around outside the home that will make an intruders job easier.
Good advice isn’t it? We all want to keep our homes and belongings safe and sound.
At a guess, if your home was broken into then you probably wouldn’t shrug your shoulders and say it was “one of those things”. Even if nothing of value was taken, you’d probably still feel disturbed that somebody had gained unauthorised access to your property and belongings.
So stop and consider for a moment – how would you feel if the same thing happened and somebody gained unauthorised access to your company computer systems?
In the previous peer to peer network, the security was very minimal. Users had passwords, but they never changed… ever. Passwords were often the same as the user-names, or were very simple – cat, dog, that sort of thing. Files were shared amongst everyone in the system without any permission structure in place.
In effect, anyone who had access to the network had access to ALL the network, and that anyone could include anyone who could guess a logon user-name and password. So let’s be honest, ANYONE!
SBS 2008 takes security seriously, and after implementing the new network infrastructure we talked to the client about the new strong password policy they would have in place. The client had lots of questions, many objections to the new way of working (“But we’ve always done it this way”, “I don’t see the point”, “People won’t remember all that”) and generally a resistance to change. This is human nature – change is difficult, but people are adaptable.
So we explained to the client the pro’s of a Strong Password policy, and the huge disadvantages of sticking with a weak password system.
So what is the difference between a Strong Password Policy, and a Weak Password system?
A weak password provides attackers with very easy access to your computer system. Strong passwords are considerably harder to crack (or break) – and that’s even with the powerful password-cracking software that is available today. Password-cracking software continue to improve, and the computers that are used to crack passwords are growing more powerful than ever. Password-cracking software generally uses one of three different approaches: intelligent guessing, dictionary attacks, and brute-force automated attacks that try every possible combination of characters. Given enough time, the automated method can crack any password. However, strong passwords are much much harder to crack than weak passwords. A secure computer system has strong passwords for all user accounts.
A weak password:
- Is no password at all.
- Contains your user name, real name, or company name.
- Contains a complete dictionary word. For example, Password is a weak password.
A strong password:
- Is at least seven characters long.
- Does not contain your user name, real name, or company name.
- Does not contain a complete dictionary word.
- Is significantly different from previous passwords. Passwords that increment (Password1, Password2, Password3 …) are not strong.
- Contains characters from each of the following four groups – Upper-case letters, Lower-case letters, Numerals.
A computer system or network should have a mandatory password policy put in place. This policy will dictate that passwords must be strong, meeting the above criteria, and also be changed after a set period of time – say, 42 days.
If all of this sounds rather a chore, ask yourself the question – should I adopt a strong password policy now…. or after an unauthorised user has gained access to my files? This isn’t scaremongering and it’s not a case of if, it’s a case of when. We regularly see random hacker attacks on *all* our client systems – even those with security in place. Generally these are random attacks probing for weaknesses. But think about this… to use the Household Security analogy again, which house do burglars target, those without signs of security, or those with windows and doors left open. The same is true of Computer Security – by adopting strong security policies, you don’t eliminate the risk of attack, but you do become a less attractive target.
Q – Couldn’t we all just use this same password? It makes it easy for us to log on.
A – You could all use the same password, as it would make it easy for everyone to logon, but that everyone might include the cleaner, the security guard, Mary in Finance, whose teenage son who has popped into the office to wait for Mom to finish work, hackers trying to access the network from the Internet, an employee checking out his appraisal compared to his colleagues, a disgruntled staff member looking to destroy some data, or worse, your competitor who has gained access to your network. By having individual strong passwords for each user, you’re drastically reducing the risk of these scenarios, or similar, ever occurring.
Q – The boss and our HR department need access to everybody’s files and e-mails – can we use strong passwords but force everybody to write them down so colleagues can access them?
A – If a member of staff writes his password down on a post-it note in his desk drawer, or worse, attached to his monitor, then that password isn’t secure at all and the whole system becomes vulnerable. You could get every member of staff to write their password down on a piece of paper kept centrally, say with HR or the boss, but as passwords are best changed every 30-40 days, this will turn into a laborious exercise in administration very quickly. A better solution would be to simply dynamically give the boss or HR department access to those files or e-mails they need to from their own logon and computer as and when needed, or less preferably but if necessary, give them permanent access to all those resources from their own logon and computer.
Q – Can we ask the IT department to tell us what Joe or Dave’s password is?
A – The IT department don’t have access to users existing passwords, they can only reset these passwords to something new. This creates an audit trail of who changed a password and when.
Q – When Joe is on holiday or off-sick, Dan needs access to their files and e-mail – if Dan hasn’t got Joe’s password to log on to his computer, how can he cover his work?
A – Rather than sharing passwords and logging on to a computer as Joe, Dan can be given access to Joe’s e-mails and files from his own computer and logon. This could be temporary, so when Joe returns from his absence Dan no longer has access to his files or e-mails.
Q – We have folders that we’d like password protected, is this possible?
A – If you’re following the advice we’ve given previously, with every user having their own logon and password, then any file folder can have very granular security, allowing or denying a single user or group of users access to those files or sub-folders. For instance, you may have a Public Folder containing four folders – Staff Information, Design Drawings, Accounts and HR. Everybody in the company needs access to Staff Information. Everybody needs access to Design Drawings, but only the Design Staff should be able to modify or delete files within that folder. Only the Finance Department and the boss need access to the Accounts folders, and only the HR department need access to the HR folder. It’s very simple to set-up granular permissions for this scenario, provided everybody has their own user-name and password.
If you’ve not got a Strong Password policy in place – then why not? Be honest with yourself – are you ignoring that advice from the Police and leaving the windows and doors to your home wide open? Or are you being realistic, realising that threats do exist and you can mitigate this risk by taking reasonable steps?
Thoughts and your own computer security advice welcome! If I can offer any advice or point you in the direction of an IT company who can help you with your own requirements, don’t hesitate to get in touch!
Richard Tubb is an Independent Consultant who works with IT companies to enable them to feel more in control and to grow their businesses. He is also a Microsoft UK Small Business Specialist Partner Area Lead (PAL). You can e-mail him at firstname.lastname@example.org or connect with him via Twitter and LinkedIn .